Ubiquitylation participates in a repertoire of reversible post-translational modifications that modulate the function, localization and half-life of proteins by regulating their association with various ubiquitin-binding proteins. In response to pathogen infection, bacterial effectors impact ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like modifications of key proteins in immune and anti-apoptotic signaling cascades. Certain bacteria corrupt the ubiquitylation machinery in order to regulate their virulence factors spatially and temporally or to trigger internalization of bacteria into host cells. Several new examples of how bacterial factors target ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like regulation emphasize the importance of modulating ubiquitin signaling to establish either long-lasting or devastating relationships of bacteria with their hosts.
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